Our new book titled “Secrets of Successful Presenters: A Guide for Successful Presenters” has been published

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Combatting extremism through education

Although the 20th century has been marked as the most lethal century in the history of humanity in which over 150 million people have died at the hands of others (ICE, 2001) but the same century has also been the most promising one in terms of intellectual & technological inventions. The great challenge inherited by the 21st century is that how can we ensure that such developments be used in the promotion of peace and prosperity of nations and in the improvement of the quality of life of people, thereby truly allowing for the survival of humanity?

The 21st century is loaded with a large number of challenges for the global community. These challenges include the exponential growth of information & innovation, availability of information (time, speed, volume, mode and nature), globalized business environment and access to data, the control of international and inter-organizational business processes in real time, highly uncertain and chaotic business environment, new level of national & international competition (hyper-competition), social & cultural diversity, rapidly changing products and processes, energy, government regulation, increasing importance of skill, quality, productivity and other stresses (Davenport, 1998; Locke et al, 2005; AMR Research, 2006; the Aberdeen Group, 2007; Hawking, 2007; Caruso, 2009;). Moreover, extremism has emerged as a common trait of the globalized society; posing serious threats to global prosperity, harmony, and peace.

May people consider “education” as a solution to this problem. They may be right; but someone has to define “Education”. Education is commonly defined as “change of behavior” and “to educate” means “ to modify behavior”. The question that logically must follow is, “change to what?” ”To what extent shall we modify the child in order to change our society?” A review of the educational philosophies – perrennialism, essentialism, eclecticism, progressivism, re-constructionism, modernism and post-modernism – and their associated objectives reveals that they have always been affected by the underlying socio-economic and political conditions of the specific time slot in the course of history (Lovat & Smith, 1995:11). Talking about the relationship between educational knowledge and power, Bemstein (1971: p.41) argues “How a society selects, classifies, distribute and evaluate the educational knowledge it considers to be public, reflects both the distribution of power and the principle of social control”. The NEPI Report (1992) acknowledges this reality as it states, “There are, therefore, important social and political dimensions to the curriculum. The way in which knowledge is organized in the school curriculum is a social activity which produces a social product. It is drawn up by particular groups of people; it reflects particular point of views and values; it is anchored in the experiences of particular social groups; and it produces particular patterns of success and failure.” A further exploration of these aspects may demand for a new definition of education. The question that logically will follow is “ Who is responsible of defining education?”

However, in current situation knowledge of personal, social, and civic responsibilities is the key area which may help us to combat against terrorism. It has also been included in major Frameworks for 21st century skills.
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills Framework has included following section:
Life skills: Good teachers have always incorporated life skills into their pedagogy. The challenge today is to incorporate these essential skills into schools deliberately, strategically and broadly. Life skills include:
• Leadership
• Ethics
• Accountability
• Adaptability
• Personal productivity
• Personal responsibility
• People skills
• Self-direction
• Social responsibility

Metiri Group and NCREL ‘s 21st century skills framework has included
Effective Communication
• Teaming, Collaboration, and Interpersonal Skills
• Personal, Social, and Civic Responsibility
• Interactive Communication
In their 21st century skills framework the American Association of Colleges and Universities has included
Personal and Social Responsibility, including

• Civic knowledge and engagement—local and global
• Intercultural knowledge and competence
• Ethical reasoning and action
• Foundations and skills for lifelong learning

Some useful material on “Extremism and Education”

Some limitations of the existing Curriculum
Overall, the distinction between perennial and contextual skills is important because, unlike perennial capabilities, new, contextual types of human performances are typically not part of the legacy curriculum inherited from 20th century educational systems. Conventional, 20th century K- 12 instruction emphasizes manipulating pre-digested information to build fluency in routine problem solving, rather than filtering data derived from experiences in complex settings to develop skills in sophisticated problem finding. Knowledge is separated from skills and presented as revealed truth, not as an understanding that is discovered and constructed; this separation results in students learning data about a topic rather than learning how to extend their understand beyond information available for assimilation. Also, in 20th century instruction, problem solving skills are presented in an abstract form removed from their application to knowledge; this makes transfer to real world situations difficult. The ultimate objective of education is presented as learning a specific problem solving routine to match every situation, rather than developing expert decision making and metacognitive strategies that indicate how to proceed when no standard approach seems applicable.
In the legacy curriculum, little time is spent on building capabilities in group interpretation, negotiation of shared meaning, and co-construction of problem resolutions. The communication skills stressed are those of simple presentation, rather than the capacity to engage in richly structured interactions that articulate perspectives unfamiliar to the audience. Face-to-face communication is seen as the “gold standard,” so students develop few capabilities in mediated dialogue and in shared design within a common virtual workspace.
Given that the curriculum is already crowded, a major political challenge is articulating what to deemphasize in the curriculum – and why – in order to make room for students to deeply master core 21st century understandings and performances. This is not a situation in which one must eliminate an equivalent amount of current curriculum for each 21st century understanding added, because better pedagogical methods can lead to faster mastery and improved retention, enabling less reteaching and more coverage within the same timeframe (Van Lehn and the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center, 2006). However, what education should emphasize as its core outcomes is politically controversial even if substantial sections of the 20th century legacy curriculum are not eliminated.
In the legacy curriculum, little time is spent on building capabilities in group interpretation, negotiation of shared meaning, and co-construction of problem resolutions. The communication skills stressed are those of simple presentation, rather than the capacity to engage in richly structured interactions that articulate perspectives unfamiliar to the audience. Face-to-face communication is seen as the “gold standard,” so students develop few capabilities in mediated dialogue and in shared design within a common virtual workspace.
Given that the curriculum is already crowded, a major political challenge is articulating what to deemphasize in the curriculum – and why – in order to make room for students to deeply master core 21st century understandings and performances. This is not a situation in which one must eliminate an equivalent amount of current curriculum for each 21st century understanding added, because better pedagogical methods can lead to faster mastery and improved retention, enabling less reteaching and more coverage within the same timeframe (Van Lehn and the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center, 2006). However, what education should emphasize as its core outcomes is politically controversial even if substantial sections of the 20th century legacy curriculum are not eliminated.
Beyond curricular issues, classrooms today typically lack 21st century learning and teaching in part because high-stakes tests do not assess these competencies. Assessments and tests focus on measuring students’ fluency in various abstract, routine skills, but typically do not assess their strategies for expert decision making when no standard approach seems applicable. Essays emphasize simple presentation rather than sophisticated forms of rhetorical interaction. Students’ abilities to transfer their understandings to real world situations are not assessed, nor are capabilities related to various aspects of teamwork. The use of technological applications and representations is generally banned from testing, rather than measuring students’ capacities to use tools, applications, and media effectively. Abilities to effectively utilize various forms of mediated interaction are typically not assessed. As discussed later, valid, reliable, practical assessments of 21st century skills are needed to improve this situation.
Lack of professional development is another reason 21st century skills are underemphasized in today’s schooling. Providing educators with opportunities to learn about the ideas and strategies discussed in this volume is only part of the issue. A major, often unrecognized challenge in professional development is helping teachers, policy makers, and local communities unlearn the beliefs, values, assumptions, and cultures underlying schools’ industrial-era operating practices, such as forty-five minute class periods that allow insufficient time for all but superficial forms of active learning by students. Altering deeply ingrained and strongly reinforced rituals of schooling takes more than the superficial interchanges typical in “make and take” professional development or school board meetings. Intellectual, emotional, and social support is essential for “unlearning” and for transformational relearning that can lead to deeper behavioral changes to create next-generation educational practices. Educators, business executives, politicians, and the general public have much to unlearn if 21st century understandings are to assume a central place in schooling.

Pakistan’s Education System and Links to Extremism
Author: Jayshree Bajoria
October 7, 2009; Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/pakistans-education-system-links-extremism/p20364
The World Bank says nearly half the adult population of Pakistan can’t read, and net primary enrollment rates remain the lowest in South Asia. Experts say the system suffers from inadequate government investment, corruption, lack of institutional capacity, and a poor curriculum that often incites intolerance. In August 2009, chief counterterrorism adviser to the White House John Brennan, summing up a concern held by many U.S. terrorism experts, said extremist groups in Pakistan have exploited this weakness. “It is why they offer free education to impoverished Pakistani children, where they can recruit and indoctrinate the next generation,” he said. There have been some efforts by the Pakistani government, Western governments, and the World Bank to reform the system, but serious challenges remain. [ A bird eye view of this paper may give some points]

Universities failing to fight extremism, says watchdoghttp://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/18/counter-terrorism-watchdog-universities-fail-fight-extremism
Lord Carlile, who is in charge of overseeing the government’s counterterrorism strategy, Prevent, urges ministers to develop a “new narrative” for combating extremism, supporting moderate Muslim theologians against al-Qaida. “You have to meet like with like,” he says.
He is scathing about the conclusion reached by Universities UK, representing 133 universities – and says their report contains a “glaring omission”. He told the Guardian: “[There] is a total failure to deal with how to identify and handle individuals who might be suspected of radicalising or being radicalised whilst within the university.”
The vice-chancellors’ report says universities should “engage, not marginalise” extreme political views on campus. It says universities should confront “aberrant behaviour” and refer it to police but it is “emphatically not” universities’ function to engage in censorship or surveillance of students.
The report adds that “by being places where ideas and beliefs can be tested without fear of control”, universities act as a safeguard against ideologies that threaten Britain’s open society.

Education, Extremism and Terrorism: What Should be Taught in Citizenship Education and Why By Dianne Gereluk, Continuum (May 10 2012)
This book considers whether the issues of extremism and terrorism should be addressed and taught in schools. In England, the issue of extremism and terrorism has recently been introduced within various aspects of the curriculum at secondary level. Little has been said about the justification of including these issues and little has been said about how such subjects should be broached within school walls. This text redresses this void and explores and critiques various justifications used for why these issues should be addressed in schools. The broader education and political objectives of the extent to which the state should develop political education with particular reference to extremism and terrorism. In light of the exploration of the justifications for teaching extremism and terrorism, the way in which educators should teach these topics in school are explored with practical suggestions.
The Educational Environment as a Means for Overcoming Youth Extremism by Panina, G. V. Russian Education and Society, v52 n10 p3-18 Oct 2010
During Russia’s societal transition extremist behavior by young people shows signs of increasing. An extra effort is required on the part of Russian educators to try to contain this phenomenon. The increasing extremist activity on the part of young people is linked to a particular stage of the development of society. It appears that youth extremism serves as an indicator of society’s economic development, and of its transition to the postindustrial phase of development. In this article the author attempts to substantiate this paradoxical assertion. The author discusses extremism as an indicator of social troubles and describes some measures to overcome youth extremism. The author stresses that the most important way to combat youth extremism consists of showing concern for the development of the social institution of education and perfecting its structural components.

How can we keep extremism out of our schools?
Blog of Neil O’Brien
Neil O’Brien is Director of Policy Exchange, an independent think tank working for better public services, a stronger society and a more dynamic economy. He writes in a personal capacity.
http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/neilobrien1/100064844/how-can-we-keep-extremism-out-of-our-schools-with-a-commitment-to-british-values/

Can Autonomy Counteract Extremism in Traditional Education? Author: RESNICK, DAVID
Source: Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 42, Number 1, February 2008 , pp. 107-118(12)
Abstract:
The very purpose of traditional—especially religious—education is to induct the young into a unique vision of reality. When the compelling religious vision conflicts with other visions, extremist confrontations may result. This paper explores ways to `square the circle’ of the educational conundrum of how to educate for fervent commitment to tradition without precluding autonomy and diversity, both within the tradition but especially vis-à-vis outsiders. Some liberal educators see educating for autonomy as an antidote to extremism, but such an approach is found wanting both ethically and empirically. Reinforcing the roots of toleration within religious traditions is offered as a more effective alternative.

A Critical Moment for Pakistan to Make a Decision

The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2011 was launched on January 26, 2012 at the Planning Commission auditorium Islamabad. For this report, the data was collected with the help of more than 5000 volunteers as a nationwide citizens’ effort on education and learning accountability, in 84 rural districts and 3 urban city districts, covering 2,502 villages, 97 urban blocks, 49,793 households and 146,874 children. The report highlights trends in learning for 5-16 year olds -and access for 3-16 year olds disaggregated by gender. According to this report the Early Childhood education (3-5 year olds) shows the highest enrollment of 51.3% in Punjab and lowest in Gilgit-Baltistan (29.4%) with majority enrolled in government schools. For urban areas this trend is highest in Karachi (68.9%) with majority of children in private schools (Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar).

Of the 6-16 year olds surveyed the rural enrolment trend is 80% whilst out of school persists
at 20% comprising of higher number of children who have never enrolled (15% never enrolled and 5.0% drop out). In the 3 urban city districts the enrolment is around 90%. Girls lag behind boys in enrolment and learning in rural areas. In urban areas the trends for girls is much better than their rural counterparts. In Karachi for instance, among the enrolled children 52.4% were girls as compared to 47.6% boys. Also, 45% girls were found to be able to read simple sentences in Urdu/Sindhi as compared to the 38% boys who could read sentences in Urdu/Sindhi.

The overall rural private sector enrolment accounts for 23%. Of the total enrolment 2 percent study in madrasahs (highest Madrasah enrollment in Balochistan Province (5.2%) and district
Bahawalpur in Punjab at 5%). Not only are families paying for private schools fees but 11% rural households are also paying for tuition centres/preparatory academies. In urban areas this trend is from 31% to 50%. In the rural sample the percentage of government school children taking tuitions is 7.1% vs. private school children which is 24%. In rural districts like Nankana Sahib and Sheikhupura supplementary learning is highest (37%). The trends of rural non-state private schooling are highest in the provinces/areas of: GilgitBaltistan (43%) and Punjab (33%) and lowest in Sindh (10%).

Like 2010 the ASER 2011 evidence is most worrying on learning levels across school systems 47.4% of the children in grade 5 can read Urdu/Sindhi while 52.6% of children completing primary will not be able to read simple grade 2 level stories in Urdu or mother tongue.
40.6 % of the children in grade 5 can read English sentences while 59.4 % of children completing primary will not be able to read simple grade 2 level sentences in English.
37.3 % of the children in grade 5 can do three digit division (grade III level) while 62.7% of children completing primary will not be able to do the simple 3-digit division.

In the rural sample teachers attendance (overall) in government schools is 83% whilst for primary level it is 85% on a given day; the comparable figures for private schools are 89% overall and 83% at the primary level.

The difference across public and private in teachers’ presence may be narrowing.The presence of children continues to be a challenge with 79.7% children present in government schools (rural) on a given day according to the headcount measure and 85.2% in private schools (rural). In the urban sample Karachi was found to have the lowest student attendance rates. Overall student attendance in government schools in Karachi on the day of the visit was 66.5% according to the head count measure.

In FATA 75 % children were found to be enrolled in schools while 25 % were out of school. Among the enrolled 56 % were in government schools, 35% went to private schools while 5.4% were enrolled in madrasahs. 30% children in the 5-16 age group could read story level text in Urdu while 18% could read simple English Sentences. 31.8% were found to be able to do simple 3 digit subtraction sums.

Facilities in government schools have improved most in Punjab followed by KP. In Punjab 80% government schools have a useable water facility and 70% have a functional toilet
whereas in KP 59% government schools were found with a useable water facility and 52% with a functional toilet.

Mothers’ literacy in rural areas persists at 34.5% compared to 32.3% in 2010 whilst for urban mothers this is 61% (Peshawar) 77% (Lahore) and 82% (Karachi).

The above given statistics have raised a question of accountability for the current government. Pakistan is not only a signatory of both international declarations “Education For All” & “Millennium Development Goals”, but Article 25-A (the Right to Education) has been inserted in the chapter of the fundamental rights of the Constitution as part of the 18th Constitutional amendment under which “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law.” The above given statistics once again reconfirm the continuation of conventional challenges including disparities in opportunities particularly for the rural poor and girls, poor quality education, low enrollment and completion rates, high drop-out rates and low levels of transition to secondary education. According to UNESCO’s report “Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011”, there are 7.261 million children out of school at the primary level, and 58% are female, and overall all estimates of 5-16 year olds who are out of school go up to 20 million children. Under such circumstances, the question is “how will Pakistan compete in the forthcoming era of knowledge economies?”. Both Pakistan government and the nation need to realize that today’s young children will be the future workforce. Keeping in view the forthcoming challenges of the knowledge revolution we, as a nation, have to put “Education” on the top priority. Otherwise, Pakistan gets ready for a socio-economic alienation from the global community.

What’s wrong with computing curricula in Pakistan?

If you want to know what’s wrong with computing Education in Pakistan; read our recently published research paper: “Rethinking of Computing Curricula in Higher Education in Pakistan”

Author: Muhammad Anwar-ur-Rehman Pasha,Dr. Shaheen Pasha

Abstract: Developing & implementing appropriate curricula is a paramount challenge in computing education. To meet this challenge, educators from all over the world are updating curriculum on a regular basis. Recently, the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has revised the existing curricula of degree programs to standardize computing education in Pakistan. Taking a content analysis approach the study has pointed out many some shortcomings of the revised curricula. The study recommends that the teaching of over-crowded course contents must be discouraged as it promotes rote learning and inhibits creativity and innovation. Curriculum development processes must be followed to develop an effective curriculum. Also, the curriculum must enrich students’ experiences, thoughts, beliefs, assumptions, and attitudes in their field of study to develop special characteristics and mindset. The recommendations made in this study may help the concerned authorities to take measures to improve the quality and standards of the computing curriculum in Pakistan.

Follow this link to read full text:

Curriculum Development Models

The concept of a curriculum has always been a point of great concern among educationist since the late 18th century. Many models of curriculum development have been reported in literature. For example, Classic Model, also known as Prescriptive Model (Tyler, 1949), considers curriculum development as a linear and logical activity mainly focusing on four aspects: (i) Educational purposes: a desired goals/objectives, (ii) Educational experiences: instructions & contents which act as a means of attaining these goals/ objectives, (iii) Structure of the curriculum which provides the organization of learning experiences, and (iv) Assessment and evaluation: the processes of determining learning outcomes.

Tyler (1949) work shows an inclination toward Skinner’s behaviorism (1957) and John Dewey’s progressive education (1963) as he says, “Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students’ pattern of behaviour, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students”. (Tyler 1949: 44). His model is also labeled as “Product Model” as some researchers considered his thoughts were heavily influenced by ‘scientific management’ which is also associated with his name.

Hilda Taba (1962) presented a model, also known as “interactive model” or “Instructional Strategies Model”, which mainly focuses on the planning of instructional strategies and considers it the basis of the curriculum design. Her model includes five mutually interactive elements of teaching and learning system: (i) objectives, (ii) contents, (iii) learning experiences, (iv) teaching strategies, and (v) evaluative measures. Some of the innovative aspects of Taba’s model include determining required objectives and related content, selection and organization of learning experiences in accordance with specified criteria; selection of a variety of teaching strategies and evaluation procedures and measures. Her model gives due consideration to external factors that may affect various components of a curriculum including the vicinity and community of school’s location, the school district’s educational policies, the goals, resources, and administrative strategies of the school, teachers’ personal style and characteristics, the nature of the student population.

Wheeler (1967) has presented a cyclical model which has many similarities with linear and interactive models. The key elements of this model includes initial situation analysis, identification of aims and objectives, contents selection and organization, selection and organization of learning activities, and the assessment / evaluation process.

Walker (1971) presented a descriptive model, referred to as naturalistic by some scholars and also known as “process model”. His model includes three important elements: (i) platform that provides the beliefs or principles to guide the curriculum developers (ii) deliberation which is the process of making decisions from available alternatives, and (iii) design that is the organization and structure of the curriculum. Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) another advocator of process model defines: ‘A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice’. He suggests that a curriculum is rather like a recipe in cookery. He says, “A curriculum, like the recipe for a dish, is first imagined as a possibility, then the subject of experiment. The recipe offered publicly is in a sense a report on the experiment. Similarly, a curriculum should be grounded in practice. It is an attempt to describe the work observed in classrooms that it is adequately communicated to teachers and others. Finally, within limits, a recipe can be varied according to taste. So can a curriculum.” (Stenhouse 1975: 4-5). At this point he shifted from a conventional process model as he does not consider the curriculum itself as a process rather a mean through which the constructed theory is converted into teaching-learning practices.

Weinstein and Fantini (1970) proposed a model, also known as Humanistic Model, links socio-psychological factors with cognition and concerned with the group, as opposed to individuals as most students are taught in groups. The model stresses to identify the learners demographic details and their concerns. Through diagnosis, the teacher attempts to develop student-centered strategies for instruction to meet learners’ concerns and organize contents around learners’ concerns rather than on the demands of subject matter. He further emphasizes that the content should be organized according to the learners: life experiences, their attitudes and feelings, and the social context in which they live. Teaching procedures should be developed for learning skills, content, and organizing ideas. Teaching procedures should match the learning styles on their common characteristics and concerns). Finally, the teacher evaluates the outcomes of the curriculum: cognitive and affective objectives.

Hawes (1979) proposed a p student-centered models in which the teacher acts as facilitator rather than content authority. According to this model curriculum development is an ongoing process which is influenced by emerging theories & philosophies including theories of child behavior, theories of teaching learning, and theories of the structure of knowledge. It also includes the practices, beliefs, and experiences of those who plan the learning environment. In addition to the core elements like objectives, content, pedagogy, and evaluation the model give importance to aspects like physical situation, teacher behavior, pupil behavior, etc.

Although the curriculum development has always been a topic of K-12 education (Tyler’s, 1949; Taba, 1962; Wheeler, 1967; Walker, 1971), many concerns have also been reported in higher education literature as well. These concerns include over-burdened curriculum, lack of coherence, practicality, accessibility, quality and Integrity (HEC, 2012). In parallel, the business and industry leaders’ concerns of inadequate skills of graduates (UNESCO, 2012), and citizen concerns about graduates’ disengagement from civic life (Kerr & Blenkinsop, 2005), further revels the shortcomings of the under-graduate curriculum. Many deliberate attempts have been made to develop a curriculum model which helps to increases academic rigor, sharpen students’ critical thinking and analytical reasoning, and expose them to richer subject matter. In this regard the main research strides emerge in three areas:
• Innovative instructional methods: In addition to lecture and class discussions, many innovative instructional methods have emerged in higher education including active learning, experiential learning, inquiry based learning, discovery based learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning; collaborative and cooperative learning, understanding by design, ADDIE model of Instructional Design.
• Assessment of student learning: In addition to descriptive, multiple choice and short questions, new evaluation methods have been developed to promote Bloom’s higher-order critical thinking skills and other competencies required in the employment market. New methods include self-assessments, students’ portfolio, open book test, case studies analysis, group projects, prototyping, technology-based evaluation, etc.
• Curriculum Coherence and Integration: The latest research bring reforms in curriculum development including integration of general education across the curriculum, integrating the disparate elements of students’ learning experiences, shifting curriculum objectives from content delivery to attaining competencies, etc.
In response to the increasing popularity of constructivist learning theory (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956) and instructional design (Seels & Glasgow, 1990) in higher educational practice, Biggs’ (1996) put forwards a notion of constructive alignment. Biggs adopted the idea of the alignment of instructional design from Cohen’s (1987) who replaces learning with attainment (Biggs, 2002). Instructional alignment demands a precise match between what is intended to be taught, what is intended to be evaluated and what is intended to be learnt (Talbot, 2004). Whereas, constructive alignment asks for a shift from behaviourist pedagogy to constructivist pedagogy through stating the curriculum objectives in terms of the level of understanding required of a student than just listing the topics to be covered. Eisner (1991) model combines behavioral principles with aesthetic components to form a curriculum. His model based on five core elements: intentional, structural, curriculum, pedagogical, and evaluative.

Over the last few years, in higher education new curriculum models have been developed to accommodate new means of delivery, access and storage of information and to incorporate more flexibility into the existing curriculum to provide a better access to a wider range of students (Moran, 1995; Tinkler, Lepani and Mitchell, 1996; Mitchell and Bluer, 1997). Bell & Lefoe (1998), in their flexible learning curriculum design model, talk about the selection of the media to be used for content delivery. Irlbeck, Kays, Jones & Sims’s (2006) “Three-Phase Design (3PD) Model” adopts a team-based approach to design, development, and delivery online courses. Their model allows designing a flexible curriculum for online delivery. Some other models proposed in literature includes inclusive curriculum, learner-centered curriculum (McCombs & Whisler, 1997), spiral curriculum (Bruner, 1996), transformational curriculum (Parker, 2003), internationalization, interdisciplinary, Project Based Learning, Standards Based Learning, Curriculum Mapping (Jacobs, 1997), Integrated Course Design (Fink, 2007) etc.

Changing Patterns of Computing Disciplines

Changing Patterns of Computing Disciplines

Computing is an interdisciplinary discipline that crosses the boundaries between mathematics, science, engineering, business and social sciences.  It consists of multiple fields including computer science, computer engineering, information systems, information technology, and software engineering (ACM/IEEE, 2001).  These fields are inter-related but they are quite different from each other. This dynamic nature of computing discipline propelled the international community to devise a model curriculum for computing.

The history of computing curriculum development can be traced back to 1965 when a preliminary version of the recommendations for Computer Science curriculum was published by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM, 1965). Since then the educators and professionals all over the world are striving to formalize the fundamental principles that distinguish the goals and methods of computing from those of other related disciplines.

In early days, the term ‘computer science’ was used as a common notion for computing discipline. With the passage of time, the nature of basic principles, methods, techniques and concepts evolves as the discipline evolves, and new principles replace old ones. Typically there are always strong resistances to change (Lawrence, 1954); therefore, these new developments were sometimes seriously questioned by believers in old principles. For example, Hilbert’s principle that formal mathematical theorems are provable by logical inference was questioned by Kurt Godel (1931), Alonzo Church & Alan Turing (1936), who argued that logic cannot completely prove all mathematical theorems. Similarly, many contradictory views of computing like the mathematical worldview (Davis, 1958 ) vs the interactive worldview (Goldin  & Wegner, 2008),  algorithmic programming  (Knuth 1968; Hopcroft & Ullman, 969 ) vs  contemporary programming (Rice & Rice 1969)  opened up new horizons for computing (Sipser, 2005).

Much efforts have been made to understand this rapidly expanding  nature of computing which include the recommendations of ACM Curriculum Committee on Computer Science (ACM, 1969; 1977; 1979), IEEE Computer Society Education Committee/Model Curriculum Subcommittee. (IEEE, 1976), IEEE Computer Society Educational Activities Board/Model Program Committee (IEEE, 1983), Report on the ACM Task Force on the Core of Computer Science (Denning , et al. , 1988).

Prior to the 1990s, many international bodies were producing their own curriculum recommendations. But, in 1991, ACM and IEEE-CS published a joint curriculum – Known as Computing Curricula 1991 or CC’91 – for four-year Bachelor’s degree programs in Computer Science and Computer Engineering (ACM/IEEE-CS, 1991). At that time Computing was restricted to three disciplines – Computer Engineering, Computer Science and Information Systems (See fig 1). In 1997, IS ‘97 Model Curriculum and Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Information Systems (ACM, 1997) was also published.

By the end of the 1990s, global community started realizing that the field of computing had not only grown rapidly but had also grown in many dimensions. Different kinds of degree programs were offered by different academic institution which brought in the problem of degree accreditation. Consequently, in 2001, ACM and IEEE-CS joint task force produced Computing Curricula 2001 (ACM/IEEE, 2001) which further expanded the concept of Computing into four distinct disciplines – Computer Science (CS), Computer Engineering (CE), Information Systems (IS) and Software Engineering (SE). In response to the CC2001 model, the Information Systems, the Software Engineering and Computer Engineering communities published their own curriculum recommendation reports reports (ACM/AIS/AITP, 2002), (ACM/IEEE, 2004a) and (ACM/IEEE, 2004a) respectively.

The inventions of digital electronics gave birth to ‘digital revolution which brought digital calculators and computer systems into the access of public domain. These gadgets not only revolutionized the conventional concepts of calculation, but also changed the way data was stored, retrieved and controlled. Computers became essential tools at every level of most organizations, and networked computer systems became the information backbone of organizations (Kotkin, 2000).

The digital revolution not only affected the way scientists conduct their research but also expedite the pace of inventions (Thomson, 2007). High pace innovation in technologies for communication, computation, interactivity, and delivery of information introduced invention like ‘the Internet’, ‘the World Wide Web’, ‘email’, ‘bulletin board system’, ‘virtual communities’, ‘E-commerce’ and  other online technologies which brought a paradigm shift in business world –  from data processing to information processing – converting industrial society to an “information society (Cohen, 2009). Such inventions converted computer technology into information technology (IT). While this paradigm shift improved productivity, it also created new work place challenges regarding the development, operation, maintenance, and up gradation of organizational IT infrastructure (Samuelson, 1995). By the end of the 1990s, it became clear that the existing computing degree programs were not producing graduates who had the right mix of knowledge and skills to meet these challenges. Consequently, colleges and universities developed new degree programs to fill this crucial void (Denning, 2001); thus information technology was added as an independent discipline into the computing domain (Burrell, 1997; Lunt, et. al., 2003a; 2003b; Lunt, et. al., 2004; Lunt, et. al., 2005).

The Computing Curricula 2005 (CC2005) produced by the ACM, AIS and IEEE-CS Joint Task Force identified the distinctive features of these five distinct but overlapping disciplines of computing and laid down the key characteristics and skill set which every graduate in their respective discipline must acquire. These recommendations help academic institutions to standardize their computing related degree programs according to the need of the international market. However, the curriculum development process has not stopped yet.  Newly emerging economic trends, escalating pace of Information Technology (IT) usage, development outsourcing, and the emergence of knowledge economies have raised new issues. Recently, the international community has put forward a draft version of Computer Science Curricula 2013 (ACM, 2012) which has redefines the knowledge units and provides concrete guidance on curricular structure and development in a variety of institutional contexts.

 Distinctive Characteristics of Computing Discipline

Computing Curricula 2005 (CC2005) produced by the ACM, AIS and IEEE-CS Joint Task Force identified the distinctive features of these five disciplines, shown in figure below, and explined in below pargarps:

Computer Science spans a wide range, from its theoretical and algorithmic foundations to cutting-edge developments in robotics, computer vision, intelligent systems, bioinformatics, and other exciting areas. Computer scientists develop new programming approaches for software development, devise new ways to use computers and develop effective ways to solve computing problems. While other disciplines produce graduates with more immediately relevant job-related skills, computer science offers a comprehensive foundation for research and innovation.

Software Engineering is the discipline of developing and maintaining software systems that behave reliably and efficiently, are affordable to develop and maintain, and satisfy all the requirements that customers have defined for them.  Software engineering is different in character from other engineering disciplines due to both the intangible nature of software and related operations. It seeks to integrate the principles of mathematics and computer science with the engineering practices developed for tangible, physical artifacts. Software engineering students learn more about software reliability and maintenance and focus more on developing and maintaining software techniques. While Computer Science students just acquire superficial knowledge of these aspects.

Computer Engineering is a discipline that embodies the science and technology of design, construction, implementation, and maintenance of software and hardware components of modern computing systems and computer-controlled equipment. Computer engineering has traditionally been viewed as a combination of both computer science (CS) and electrical engineering (EE) (CE2004). Its curriculum focuses on the theories, principles, and practices of traditional electrical engineering and mathematics and applies them to the problems of designing computers and computer-based devices.  Computer engineering students study the design of digital hardware systems including communications systems, computers, and devices that contain computers. They study software development, focusing on software for digital devices and their interfaces with users and other devices.

Information systems programs make graduates ready to integrate information technology solutions and business processes to meet the information needs of businesses and other enterprises, enabling them to achieve their objectives in an effective, efficient way. Information systems curriculum emphasizes various aspects of information, and views technology as a tool for generating, processing, and distributing information. Students of this program learn how computer systems can help an enterprise in defining and achieving its goals, and the processes that an enterprise can implement or improve using information technology. They learn both technical and organizational factors to help organizations to determine how information and technology-enabled business processes can provide a competitive advantage.

Information Technology emphasis on the technology itself whereas Information Systems focuses on the information aspects only.  Today, organizations of every kind are dependent on information technology.  IT specialists possess the right combination of knowledge and practical, hands-on expertise to take care of both an organization’s information technology infrastructure and the people who use it.

Distinct Characteristics of IT, CS and SE graduates

Over the past sixty years, computing has become an extremely broad domain that extends well beyond the boundaries of computer science to encompass such independent disciplines as computer engineering, software engineering, information systems, information technology and many others. Realizing this breadth of computing domain, the global community deduced that no group representing a single specialty could hope to do justice to computing as a whole (SE2004). Consequently, independent Task Force on each discipline was assigned the task of curriculum development in their respective field.  Keeping in view the distinctive nature of IT, CS, and SE the Task Force of respective discipline laid down the key characteristics of graduates of these disciplines. These characteristics are shown in Table 1.  Every graduate in their respective discipline must acquire a skill set that enables him or her to successfully perform integrative tasks, including the ability to:

Information Technology (IT   2005) Software Engineering (SE   2004) Computer   Science (CS 2008)
–   Use and apply current technical   concepts and practices in the core information technologies;-   Analyze, identify and define the   requirements that must be satisfied to address problems or opportunities   faced by organizations or individuals;

–   Design effective and usable IT-based   solutions and integrate them into the user environment;

–   Assist in the creation of an effective   project plan;

–   Identify and evaluate current and   emerging technologies and assess their applicability to address the users’   needs;

–   Analyze the impact of technology on   individuals, organizations and society, including ethical, legal and policy   issues;

–   Demonstrate an understanding of best   practices and standards and their application;

–   Demonstrate independent critical   thinking and problem solving skills;

–   Collaborate in teams to accomplish a   common goal by integrating personal initiative and group cooperation;

–   Communicate effectively and   efficiently with clients, users and peers both verbally and in writing, using   appropriate terminology;

–   Recognize the need for continued   learning throughout their career.

–   Show   mastery of the software engineering knowledge and skills, and professional   issues necessary to begin practice as a software engineer.-   Work as an individual and as part of a   team to develop and deliver quality software artifacts.

–   Reconcile conflicting project   objectives, finding acceptable compromises within limitations of cost, time,   knowledge, existing systems, and organizations.

–   Design appropriate solutions in one or   more application domains using software engineering approaches that integrate   ethical, social, legal, and economic concerns.

–   Demonstrate an understanding of and   apply current theories, models, and techniques that provide a basis for problem   identification and analysis, software design, development, implementation,   verification, and documentation.

–   Demonstrate an understanding and   appreciation for the importance of negotiation, effective work habits,   leadership, and good communication with stakeholders in a typical software   development environment.

–   Learn new   models, techniques, and technologies as they emerge and appreciate the   necessity of such continuing professional development.

–   Demonstrate knowledge   and understanding of essential facts, concepts, principles, and theories   relating to computer science and software applications.-   Use such knowledge and understanding   in the modeling and design of computer-based systems in a way that   demonstrates comprehension of the tradeoff involved in design choices.

–   Identify and analyze criteria and   specifications appropriate to specific problems, and plan strategies for   their solution.

–   Understand the elements of   computational thinking. This includes recognizing its broad relevance in   everyday life as well as its applicability within other domains, and being   able to apply it in appropriate circumstances.

–   Analyze the extent to which a   computer-based system meets the criteria defined for its current use and   future development.

–   Deploy appropriate theory, practices,   and tools for the specification, design, implementation, and maintenance as   well as the evaluation of computer-based systems.

–   Recognize and be guided by the social,   professional, legal and ethical as well as cultural issues involved in the   use of computer technology. Increasingly cultural issues are also relevant.

2. COMPUTING DISCIPLINE IN PAKISTAN

In Pakistan, at university level computer education can be traced back to late 70’s when a department of computer science was established at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. Presently, 74 public and 62 private universities including their affiliated colleges are offering degree programs in various computing disciplines.  To ensure the quality of education students receive in universities and institutions, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) has setup an accreditation authority: National Computing Education Accreditation Council (NCEAC). The accreditation council periodically evaluates, scrutinizes and monitors the standards followed in different Universities, Degree Awarding Institutions and their affiliated colleges offering computing degree programs.

In addition, realizing the need of standardization, HEC as a part of its constitutional responsibility, has constituted four committees, as stated in [4], involving the respective expert faculty members both from public and private sectors throughout the country. All these committees worked independently in their respective domains through extensive interaction and consensus of national and international experts in the field and revise the existing curriculum after every three year. Recently, in 2009, the curriculum revision committee has published the revised curricula for BS, MS and PhD programs. The revised curricula [4] have been circulated nationwide for implementation.

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and instruction, 4(4): 295–312.

My New Assignment

After giving enough time to government & University of Education’s administration, today I have joined Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore as Professor of IT and Dean, Faculty of Computing & Information Sciences. Imperial college is a well reputed institute of “W” category. http://www.imperial.edu.pk

I will be posting further details soon.

Dr. M. A. Pasha

To whom should we ask? To whom should we blame?

Today, six public sector universities in Punjab are operating without vice chancellors. No one is ready to take the responsibility of this devastating situation. Initially, it was believed that the delay is due to the incompetency of Department of Higher Education, Punjab who has failed to take proactive measures regarding the selection of vice chancellors. It is very clear that the tenure of a Vice chancellor is four years. Obviously, the process of vice chancellors’ selection would have been started well in time so that this situation of uncertainty could be avoided. But who cares! These are public sector universities. Youth from general public is studying here. How these universities are being run without vice chancellors and what kind of education is being offered – even a layman can imagine.  It is such a disturbing fact that both politicians and bureaucracy of Punjab government have given the universities a status of a civil secretariats office where anybody can perform any task. 

Now-a-days, the situation has become more devastating as the appointment of vice chancellor has become the issue of power; Governor Punjab vs Chief Minister. Is there anyone who can explain them about the the consequences of their dirty politics. Universities are not like their political constituencies. Neither, the appointment of a vice chancellor is similar to the appointment of a police SHO. Universities are the highest seat of learning where young people are being educated to bring national prosperity and sustainability. Someone has to explain to them that education plays a vital role in the development of a civilized society. Education is the primary agent of transformation towards sustainable development, increasing people’s capacities to transform their visions for society into reality.

I wish our politicians and bureaucracy can understand that educating young people in today’s globalized world is more complex and painstaking task than anything else. It involves caring for the development of students’ intellect, emotional, social and physical growth. Simply hard work, dedication and commitment is not enough. This requires professionalism. Quality education can only be achieved through an uninterrupted execution of intelligently crafted educational processes by a group of well trained professionals equipped with appropriate knowledge, skills and attitude working in a technology enhanced teaching-learning environment furnished with appropriate provisions. A small number of rightly educated students are more valuable for a secure and prosperous Pakistan than a large army of non-productive, misguided, frustrated young graduates. Vice chancellor is always a leader of his/her university. He/she is responsible of managing quality. What could we expect from a university which does not have a vice chancellor? I wish people in Pakistan could grasp the meaning of the latest concept of education in 21st century.

Unfortunately, the incompetency of politicians and bureaucracy has made “education” a national dilemma. In 67 years, 15 education policies has been drafted, many consultation sessions have been conducted, several green papers have been published, numerous situation analysis surveys have been conducted to find answers of questions like what are the deficiencies of the existing education system. Many action plans and strategies have been devised and implemented to seek any improvement; but the issue remains unaddressed. Even large injections of international funds/resources have been unsuccessful to bring any significant change in Pakistan’s education sector.  Some of them, extracted from UNESCO (2006) report, are listed below:

  • Teacher Training Project (TTP) (1992-2000) {$21.4 million};
  • Middle School Project (1994-2004) {$78 million};
  • Technical Education Project (1996-2004) {$60 million);
  • Second Girls Primary Education Project (1998-2005) {$44.9 million};
  • Decentralized Elementary Education in Sindh  {$75 million};
  •  Increasing Access of Girls to Higher Quality Primary Education in Balochistan Province’ project (2003-2006) {$2.4 million};
  • The Pakistan Canada Debt for Education Conversion (2005-2010) {$70 million};
  • Community Model Primary School and Health Training for TBAs (2002-2004) {$12,000};
  • Gender and Rights within Education Development in Hunza Schools (2002-2005) {$33,000};
  • Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities (2000-2004) {$760,000};
  • Strengthening Rural Primary Education in Pakistan (2000-2005) {$380,000};
  • AKU-Institute for Educational Development project (an EC contribution of $12.4 million);
  • Northern Pakistan Education Programme (NPEP) (an EC contribution of $20 million);
  • NWFP Education Support Program (Euro 20 million)7;
  • Norway government Financial Assistance to the Universal Quality Primary Education in 6 Districts in Punjab, Pakistan Project (2003-2007) {$5.4 million};
  • NWFP Basic Education Improvement Project (2003-2007) {$11.2 million;
  • USAID Education Sector Reform Assistance9 (ESRA) (2002-2007) {$74 million};
  • Creating Democratic Schools (2002-2008) {$12.5 million};
  • Releasing Confidence and Creativity: Building Sound Foundations for Early Learning (2002-2006) {$5 million};
  •  Aga Khan University Examination Board, (2003-2006) {$5 million};
  • Pakistan Teacher Education and Professional Development Program (PTEPDP)10 (2003-2006) {$5 million};
  • UK government Quality Education For All11 (2004-2007) {$282,191};
  • Drop Everything and Read – Mobile Library for Government Schools in Sheikhupura (2006-2007) {$72,058};
  • Educational Rehabilitation and Development in AJK (2005-2008) {$2.4 million};
  • UNESCO fund for Preparation of a Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development (2005-2008) {$3.3 million};
  • The World Bank gave $625 million for FY2004-07, with $325 million as direct support for education, and $300 million through the proposed Poverty Reduction Structural Credit and Provincial Development Policy Credits.

  Apart from all these investments, the issue of education remains the same. One of the main reasons is that the universities are unable to produce rightly trained manpower. At the same time there are very few educators who are aware of educational processes. Consequently, ill prepared university graduates become the part of the system which affects the quality of services. I wish people in Pakistan could realize the importance of quality education. It is the only hope of our survival and it should be our top priority.

It is rightly said that action speaks louder than words.  In Pakistan, the issue of education has never been taken seriously. The current situation clearly demonstrates the sincerity & understanding of our politicians and bureaucracy towards education.   The appointment of vice chancellors was a national responsibility rather a duty of Governor Punjab, Chief Minister of Punjab, Minister Education, and Secretary Higher Education.  Without any doubt, all of them have failed to perform their duty. Is there anyone who can ask them? I can only wish, in place of blaming each other and playing this dirty politics, they realize their duties and make the appointment of competent vice chancellors so that the future of young generation could be saved.

Food for Thought

On the basis of religion, in 1947, Pakistan emerged as the largest Muslim country in the world. It was believed that the citizens of this newly born country will enjoy a better quality of life, equal opportunities, fair play and justice. With this hope, Pakistan started its journey towards modern democracy 63 years ago under the leadership of a “visionary” leader but has ended up fighting against war on terror & corruption. Education is the only hope to win this war.  

 Education is widely accepted as an instrument of socio-economic change and the backbone of national development. Unfortunately, education in Pakistan has become a national dilemma.  Low quality education, tuition culture and jobless graduates are three major problems of Pakistani education system. The poor quality of public sector institutions has forced parents not to make public schools as their first choice for their children. From the last decade, Pakistan government has encouraged private sector to increase their contribution in education sector. Unfortunately, the private sector exploited this opportunity and made education one of the most lucrative businesses.  They are, intentionally or unintentionally, playing with the emotions and fate of innocent parents and their children through offering self designed English medium curriculum without any educational planning which covertly promotes the western culture.  As a result, the young children studying in such schools grow up with confused personalities.

 The latest technological advancements have brought a paradigm shift in all aspects of human endowers; ranging from routine tasks to highly sophisticated scientific actions. As a result the social, political, cultural, and economic landscapes of the global society have changed dramatically. It is an undeniable fact that these multidimensional advancements of mankind are the outcome of untiring efforts of the non-Muslim world; known as “Developed Nations”. Due to these efforts, they have not only raised their status as the masters of this world but also created strong impact on social, cultural, economic and religious aspects of developing countries like Pakistan. Unfortunately the socio-economic conditions and political instability has further deteriorate the morals of Pakistani nation who has now become  a crowd of heavily privileged and unprivileged misused and misguided people who are unsure about their future; living in a totally insecure hostile environment; some are ready to grab any opportunity – legal or illegal ethical or unethical – which could improve their socio-economic conditions; some are agitating against the system which  is under the control of heavily privileged people who are trying to secure the  interests of developed nations, the rest have  lost their hopes and just waiting for any miracle that will change their fate.

 Lack of skilled manpower, poor planning and implementation strategies, ineffective infrastructure and insufficient energy supply have further damaged the economic progress of the country. According to the Global Gender Gap report (2009) out of 134 countries Pakistan is ranked at 132nd position. From Global Information Technology report (2008-09) a comparison of Pakistan and India is listed below:

  Pakistan India
Quality of Maths  & Science Education      109 of 134 17 of  134
Quality of  the  education Systems     104 of 134    37  of 134
Internet access  in schools                     81 of 134        60 of 134
Network Readiness Index 98 of 134                    54 of 134
Infrastructure environment                 121 of 134          76 of 134
E-Governance Readiness                  105 of 134           94 of 134
Individual Readiness         111 of 134     45 of 134

The situation in educational institutions in Pakistan is particularly grave, and some consider the whole education system to be in a virtual state of collapse.  The Government is busy in policy formulation without considering the implications of its implementation and educational institutions are engaged in producing low quality graduates. Education has become the most profitable business; no quality control, no accountability, no ethical or moral values; making money is the only objective. As a result, the society is over crowded with unemployed/lowly paid frustrated angry young people. 

 As a nation, it is important for all of us to realize that the latest Knowledge Revolution has brought unprecedented opportunities for Pakistan. These opportunities could only be achieved if we get mastery on ICT and strengthen those traits which are required in today’s knowledge economies.  It is equally important to avoid repeating the same mistakes due to which we had missed the opportunities of 1980s’ economic wave. History tells us that countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand responded timely and appropriately; as a result industrialist countries moved their manufacturing units to these countries which strengthen their economies. Once again, today’s Knowledge Revolution has brought another golden opportunity in the shape of globalized knowledge market and knowledge process outsourcing.  All over the world, companies in the domain of banking, finance, insurance, healthcare and others are restructuring their organization and re-locating them to countries which offer trained manpower and cost advantages. We should not miss this opportunity and must remember that those who has not pace with Information Revolution are facing political instability & cultural alienation which is fostering political, ethnic, ideological, and religious extremism. But those who will not pace with Knowledge Revolution will become virtual colonies of those that do succeed in this regard.

My New Book: Successful Presenters-A Guide for Successful presenters

Successful Presenters

A Guide for Successful presenters

written by

Dr. M. A. Pasha & Dr. S. Pasha

Secrets-of-Successful-Presenters

Today’s competitive world demands us to work longer, harder, faster and smarter. To meet these challenges our ability to quickly organize information in a logical, concise, and professional manner is much needed. Similarly, in routine life communicating our ideas/thoughts with others in social gatherings and at work place on a daily basis is equally important. Likewise, in our professional life, we are required to demonstrate effective presentation skills in order to present our ideas/projects/products to a wide variety of audiences, board members, employees, community leaders and groups of customers.

An idea is worth nothing if not communicated to the world. To get it across the audience a presenter has to be very effective in his communication and presentation skills. A good communication is always stimulating, inspiring, motivating and adds fuel to the fire if presenter possesses that igniting spark. Unfortunately, many people do not possess this ability. Whenever such a person is asked to explain something that requires him or her to stand up and speak to a group of people, like presenting a report, giving a presentation, or delivering a speech as a guest speaker at a ceremony, these people become panic and nervous. They avoid performing such tasks due to this sudden nervousness or uncomfortable feeling.

Being able to create and make an effective presentation is a great way to make ourselves stand out. Either we are a CEO, project manager, entrepreneur, sales person, teacher, or a public speaker; we need to strengthen our presentations skills to influence other to achieve our goals.  For this we need to learn about the secrets of successful presenters.

Successful presenters possess appropriate knowledge, skills and attitude to achieve the objectives of their presentation. For this they take advantage of their knowledge about:

  • the secretes of  information & cognitive  theories;
  • learning methods divulged by learning theories and how to use them effectively;
  • learning styles and how to select suitable method to gain  presentation’s objectives;
  • individual’s learning capacity and how  to maximize their learning gain;
  • audience’s stereotypes their attitude & psychology.

Knowledge of such aspects not only helps them to select appropriate contents, design and delivery style for their presentation but also reduce the physical and psychological stress of their audience. This way they make their presentations memorable and thriving. A large number of people realize such deficiencies in their personalities & want to overcome. Unfortunately, there is not enough professional training & coaching available in the market at present. Some rather expensive programs are available, which are not affordable by a vast majority of people. Therefore we have written this book to bring things into the reach of common people. In this book we have covered not only presentation skills, but also included some theoretical concepts which will help readers to become successful presenters.

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